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Diphtheria

Prevention of diphtheria

 DiphtheriaPrevention
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Before antibiotics were available, diphtheria was a common illness in young children. Today, the disease is not only treatable but is also preventable with a vaccine.

The diphtheria vaccine is usually combined with vaccines for tetanus and whooping cough (pertussis). The three-in-one vaccine is known as the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine. The latest version of this vaccine is known as the DTaP vaccine for children and the Tdap vaccine for adolescents and adults.

The diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine is one of the childhood immunizations that doctors in the United States recommend during infancy. Vaccination consists of a series of five shots, typically administered in the arm or thigh, given to children at these ages:

2 months
4 months
6 months
12 to 18 months
4 to 6 years
The diphtheria vaccine is effective at preventing diphtheria. But there may be some side effects. Some children may experience a mild fever, fussiness, drowsiness or tenderness at the injection site after a DTaPshot. Ask your doctor what you can do for your child to minimize or relieve these effects.

Rarely, the DTaP vaccine causes serious complications in a child, such as an allergic reaction (hives or a rash develops within minutes of the injection), seizures or shock — complications that are treatable.

Some children — such as those with epilepsy or another nervous system condition — may not be candidates for the DTaP vaccine.




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Malaria treatment

Two Genetic Markers that Predict Malaria Treatment Failure Found

 Malaria treatmentNovember 3, 2016
A frontline malaria treatment that combines fast-acting dihydroartemisinin with long-lasting piperaquine is quickly losing power in Cambodia due to the rapid spread of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of piperaquine-resistant malaria parasites in several Cambodian provinces was confirmed earlier this year by National Institutes of Health researchers and their colleagues. Now, by comparing the complete genomes of 297 parasites isolated from Cambodian malaria patients to a reference malaria parasite genome, the team has identified two genetic markers that are strongly associated with the parasites’ ability to resist piperaquine.

A simple test, performed after collecting blood from a finger pinprick, can show whether a malaria patient has parasites with the genetic markers. If so, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine therapy is likely to fail, say the study authors, and an alternative drug combination (artesunate-mefloquine) should be used. Information about the distribution of these drug resistance markers is being used by officials in Cambodia and neighboring countries to map the extent and spread of piperaquine resistance and to help guide region-wide malaria treatment approaches.




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Ebola symptoms

People with Ebola may not always show symptoms

 Ebola symptomsA year after the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, researchers from the Stanford University School of Medicine and other institutions identified 14 individuals previously unknown to have had the disease in a Sierra Leone village that was an Ebola hot spot.

These individuals had antibodies to the virus, suggesting they had been infected at one time. Yet 12 of these individuals said they had had no symptoms during the time of active transmission in the village.

The research confirms previous suspicions that the Ebola virus does not uniformly cause severe disease, and that people may be infected without showing signs of illness, said Gene Richardson, MD, a former fellow in the Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine at Stanford who is now a PhD candidate in anthropology at the university. The findings also suggest that the epidemic was more widespread than previously believed. Based on the results of the study, the researchers calculated the prevalence of minimally symptomatic infection to be 25 percent.

"The study corroborates previous evidence that Ebola is like most other viruses in that it causes a spectrum of manifestations, including minimally symptomatic infection," Richardson said. "It provides important evidence on that front. It also means a significant portion of transmission events may have gone undetected during the outbreak. This shows there was a lot more human-to-human transmission than we thought."




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Diabetes

U.Va. to lead studies on 'artificial pancreas' for Type 1 diabetes

 DiabetesBy TAMMIE SMITH Richmond Times-Dispatch
Researchers at the University of Virginia will head a $12.7 million project studying so-called “artificial pancreas” technology, in this case a smartphone application that wirelessly reads a sensor measuring a person’s glucose level and that tells an insulin pump to deliver the correct dose of insulin.
Such technology, under development by several companies, is referred to as an artificial pancreas because it does the work of the pancreas, the organ in the body that normally releases insulin to control the body’s blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t work like it’s supposed to.




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Parkinson

Brain cell therapy 'promising' for Parkinson's disease

 ParkinsonScientists believe they have found a way to treat and perhaps reverse Parkinson's disease, by making replacement cells to mend the damaged brain.
They say human brain cells can be coaxed to take over the job of the ones that are destroyed in Parkinson's.
Tests in mice with Parkinson-like symptoms showed that the therapy appeared to ease the condition.
Many more studies are needed before similar tests can begin in people.
Experts say the research published in Nature Biotechnology is hugely promising, although at a very early stage.
The scientists still have to check if the treatment is safe, and whether the converted cells, which started out in life as astrocytes, can truly function like the dopamine-producing neurons lost in Parkinson's. read more in bbc.com




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Inteligencia

Nutrientes para tener una mente activa por @blogdefarmacia

 InteligenciaEl cerebro es el organo más importante de nuestro cuerpo, y tiene una actividad constante. Está constituido en su mayoría por células nerviosas llamadas neuronas y éstas necesitan el aporte contante de glucosa. Por otro lado tenemos los neurotransmisores que son sustancias que permiten la comunicación entre neuronas y se forman a partir de aminoácidos y otros nutrientes. Es por ello que la alimenntación ocupa un lugar muy importante en el desarrollo de nuestro cerebro.

En ciertas ocasiones, como por ejemplo un aumento de actividad intelectual por estudio, trabajo, estres o por la edad, puede ser bastante beneficioso el incremento de ciertos nutrientes específicos. Los nutrientes específicos más destacados son las vitaminas de grupo B, algunos minerales, los ácidos grasos esenciales, fosfolípidos y aminoácidos.

Las vitaminas del grupo B actúan en muchos procesos fisiológicos del sistema nervioso. En concreto el deficit de vitamina B1 se relaciona con problemas de concentración y poca memoria y la falta de vitaminas B3 y B6 puede ser causa de depresión.

También existe mayor demanda de minerales como el Magnesio o el Zinc en situaciones de máxima exigencia intelectual y fisica.

Nuestro cerebro es muy rico en grasa y por ello su buen funcionamiento se relaciona con la presencia de ácidos grasos esenciales. El más relevante es el DHA (ácido docosahexaenoico) de la serie Omega 3, presente en nuestras células y relacionado con el aprendizaje, la memoria y los procesos cognitivos.




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HAPPENED IN 2016

Zika is here to stay and remains a significant public health challenge

 HAPPENED IN 2016he fifth meeting of the Emergency Committee (EC) on Zika and microcephaly convened by the Director-General under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus was held by teleconference on 18 November 2016.

The Committee was briefed on the implementation of the Temporary Recommendations issued by the Director-General on advice from the four previous EC meetings. The Committee was updated on the latest developments on Zika virus geographic spread, natural history, epidemiology, microcephaly and other neonatal complications associated with Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and current knowledge on sexual transmission of Zika virus.

The following States Parties provided information on microcephaly, GBS and other neurological disorders occurring in the presence of Zika virus transmission as well as control measures being implemented: Brazil, Thailand, and the United States of America.

The Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) declared by the Director-General of WHO has led the world to an urgent and coordinated response, providing the understanding that Zika virus infection and associated consequences represent a highly significant long-term problem that must be managed by WHO, States Parties and other partners in a way tha




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Tensión arterial

Alimentos que ayudan a mantener la tensión arterial por @blogdefarmacia

 Tensión arterialUna gran preocupación médica es la hipertensión arterial, ya que puede derivar en enfermedades cardiovasculares o cerebrales. Hay alimentos que ayudan a mantenerla a raya, te aconsejaremos una lista de 10 alimentos que ayudan a controlarla.

La tensión arterial alta es cada vez más frecuente en los países desarrollados, debido principalmente a la nutrición, el estrés y la contaminación. La tensión arterial es la fuerza que ejerce la sangre sobre las paredes de las arterias cuando es bombeada por el corazón. Puede aparecer hipertensión arterial debido a un aumento del volumen sanguíneo, debido a una alteración renal y una mala regulación del sodio, estando también implicados el hígado y el bazo en el volumen de sangre. También se puede provocar hipertensión arterial debido a un mal estado de las arterias o a la acumulación de calcio en sus paredes. También se produce por la alteración de la vasodilatación y vasoconstricción debida al estrés, al uso de estimulantes o por mala alimentación.

Hay una serie de alimentos que hay que evitar: azucares, alcohol, regaliz, picantes, sodio y los productos que pueden contenerlo como son los embutidos, quesos y conservas.

Puedes sustituir la sal por cantidades moderadas de algas marinas, tamari o miso y agua de mar, o especias (no picantes), hierbas aromáticas y ajo.




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My bad smell

Why can’t I smell my own body odor?

 My bad smellHere’s what science has to say:

Sorry you’re (allegedly) stinky. You might not realize it, but there are probably lots of smells you’re used to — including the smells of your own body and its byproducts. That’s why the bathroom always seems way smellier after your roommate uses the toilet. Trust us, they feel the same way.

There are two big components to this phenomenon, and one happens very quickly: We experience smell when molecules bombard receptors in our noses, and if they’re overrun with the same smell for a few moments they’ll tire out. It’s like a refractory period for your nose. That’s why you might think that your roommate’s garlicky meal smells super pungent when you first walk in the front door, but stop noticing it a few minutes later.




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T: Health ID: 405 I: 1211 P: 6.84 C: 0.0017

The Truth about Genetically Modified Food

 GMOThe vast majority of the research on genetically modified (GM) crops suggests that they are safe to eat and that they have the potential to feed millions of people worldwide who currently go hungry.
Year 2013.-
Yet not all criticisms of GM are so easily rejected, and pro-GM scientists are often dismissive and even unscientific in their rejection of the counterevidence.
A careful analysis of the risks and benefits argues for expanded deployment and safety testing of GM crops.





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Avoid Zika

How to Avoid Getting Bitten By a Zika Virus Mosquito

 Avoid ZikaThe most effective way to protect yourself from the Zika virus is to prevent mosquito bites.


  1. Pick the right mosquito repellent and apply it correctly

  2. Repel with your clothes

  3. Prep your home

  4. Exercise indoors

  5. Travel smart





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Life style molecule

What molecules you leave on your phone reveal about your lifestyle

 Life style moleculeWe leave behind trace chemicals, molecules and microbes on every object we touch. By sampling the molecules on cell phones, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences were able to construct lifestyle sketches for each phone's owner, including diet, preferred hygiene products, health status and locations visited. This proof-of-concept study, published November 14 by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could have a number of applications, including criminal profiling, airport screening, medication adherence monitoring, clinical trial participant stratification and environmental exposure studies.




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