Los gatos son animales reservados, no son tan impulsivos ni expresivos como los perros así que ocultan muy bien sus emociones y al ser también tan comedidos en sus movimientos elegantes y sus actos hacia nosotros, tenemos que estar con cuatro ojos para averiguar el significado que entraña cada acción o movimiento realizado por ellos. Además de para entenderles muchas veces nos va a costar averiguar que están enfermos, porque lo ocultan tremendamente bien. Por ello hoy en ExpertoAnimal vamos a ver una serie de pautas que nos ayudarían a traducir el lenguaje corporal de nuestros gatos. Sigue leyendo: http://www.expertoanimal.com/el-lenguaje-corporal-de-los-gatos-ejemplos-y-imagenes-3148.html#ixzz4H2lAFaDc
December 2016. From University of Helsinki. The results are just published in the journal Nature Communications. We still know fairly little about the specific impacts of climate change and human activity, such as nutrient enrichment of waterways, on broad geographical scales. Researchers from the Department of Geosciences and Geography at the University of Helsinki, the Finnish Environment Institute, and the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences have studied hundreds of microcosms in mountainous regions with the aid of natural temperature gradients in the studied areas, while modifying the enrichment level in field tests. The results indicate that the bacteria in elevated tropical areas are similar to e.g. those in arctic areas. As a result of changes in temperature and aquatic enrichment, significant alterations occur in the microcosms, and as the enrichment increases, biodiversity reduces, says Associate Professor Janne Soininen.
Abstract The tree of life is one of the most important organizing principles in biology1. Gene surveys suggest the existence of an enormous number of branches2, but even an approximation of the full scale of the tree has remained elusive. Recent depictions of the tree of life have focused either on the nature of deep evolutionary relationships3,4,5 or on the known, well-classified diversity of life with an emphasis on eukaryotes6. These approaches overlook the dramatic change in our understanding of life's diversity resulting from genomic sampling of previously unexamined environments. New methods to generate genome sequences illuminate the identity of organisms and their metabolic capacities, placing them in community and ecosystem contexts7,8. Here, we use new genomic data from over 1,000 uncultivated and little known organisms, together with published sequences, to infer a dramatically expanded version of the tree of life, with Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya included. The depiction is both a global overview and a snapshot of the diversity within each major lineage. The results reveal the dominance of bacterial diversification and underline the importance of organisms lacking isolated representatives, with substantial evolution concentrated in a major radiation of such organisms. This tree highlights major lineages currently underrepresented in biogeochemical models and identifies radiations that are probably important for future evolutionary analyses. Early approaches to describe the tree of life distinguished organisms based on their physical characteristics and metabolic features. Molecular methods dramatically broadened the diversity that could be included in the tree because they circumvented the need for direct observation and experimentation by relying on sequenced genes as markers for lineages. Gene surveys, typically using the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, provided a remarkable and novel view of the biological world1,9,10, but questions about the structure and extent of diversity remain. Organisms from novel lineages have eluded surveys, because many are invisible to these methods due to sequence divergence relative to the primers commonly used for gene amplification7,11. Furthermore, unusual sequences, including those with unexpected insertions, may be discarded as artefacts7. Whole genome reconstruction was first accomplished in 1995 (ref. 12), with a near-exponential increase in the number of draft genomes reported each subsequent year. There are 30,437 genomes from all three domains of life—Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya—which are currently available in the Joint Genome Institute's Integrated Microbial Genomes database (accessed 24 September 2015). Contributing to this expansion in genome numbers are single cell genomics13 and metagenomics studies. Metagenomics is a shotgun sequencing-based method in which DNA isolated directly from the environment is sequenced, and the reconstructed genome fragments are assigned to draft genomes14. New bioinformatics methods yield complete and near-complete genome sequences, without a reliance on cultivation or reference genomes7,15. These genome- (rather than gene) based approaches provide information about metabolic potential and a variety of phylogenetically informative sequences that can be used to classify organisms16. Here, we have constructed a tree of life by making use of genomes from public databases and 1,011 newly reconstructed genomes that we recovered from a variety of environments (see Methods). To render this tree of life, we aligned and concatenated a set of 16 ribosomal protein sequences from each organism. This approach yields a higher-resolution tree than is obtained from a single gene, such as the widely used 16S rRNA gene16. The use of ribosomal proteins avoids artefacts that would arise from phylogenies constructed using genes with unrelated functions and subject to different evolutionary processes. Another important advantage of the chosen ribosomal proteins is that they tend to be syntenic and co-located in a small genomic region in Bacteria and Archaea, reducing binning errors that could substantially perturb the geometry of the tree. Included in this tree is one representative per genus for all genera for which high-quality draft and complete genomes exist (3,083 organisms in total). Despite the methodological challenges, we have included representatives of all three domains of life. Our primary focus relates to the status of Bacteria and Archaea, as these organisms have been most difficult to profile using macroscopic approaches, and substantial progress has been made recently with acquisition of new genome sequences7,8,13. The placement of Eukarya relative to Bacteria and Archaea is controversial1,4,5,17,18. Eukaryotes are believed to be evolutionary chimaeras that arose via endosymbiotic fusion, probably involving bacterial and archaeal cells19. Here, we do not attempt to confidently resolve the placement of the Eukarya. We position them using sequences of a subset of their nuclear-encoded ribosomal proteins, an approach that classifies them based on the inheritance of their information systems as opposed to lipid or other cellular structures5. Figure 1 presents a new view of the tree of life. This is one of a relatively small number of three-domain trees constructed from molecular information so far, and the first comprehensive tree to be published since the development of genome-resolved metagenomics. We highlight all major lineages with genomic representation, most of which are phylum-level branches (see Supplementary Fig. 1 for full bootstrap support values). However, we separately identify the Classes of the Proteobacteria, because the phylum is not monophyletic (for example, the Deltaproteobacteria branch away from the other Proteobacteria, as previously reported2,20).
A rare and cosmically important position While many space agencies hire planetary protection officers, they're often shared or part-time roles. In fact, only two such full-time roles exist in the world: one at NASA and the other at the European Space Agency. That's according to Catharine Conley, NASA's only planetary protection officer since 2014. Business Insider interviewed Conley most recently in March. "This new job ad is a result of relocating the position I currently hold to the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, which is an independent technical authority within NASA," Conley told Business Insider in an email on Tuesday. (She did not say whether she planned to reapply for the position, which is held for at least three years but may be extended to five years.)
By Michael Le Page A fourth paper describing attempts to correct defective genes in human embryos using CRISPR is about to be published. A report in MIT Tech Review says the results are the most promising so far but the lack of detail means it is not possible to judge whether this really is the case. Several groups around the world are working on gene editing in human embryos, using the revolutionary CRISPR technique. Some want to do this to study embryonic development, with the ultimate aim of improving fertility treatments. Others are interested in its potential for correcting genetic diseases.
PASADENA, Calif. — NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, the intrepid robotic explorer of Saturn’s magnificent beauty, ended a journey of 20 years on Friday like a shooting star streaking across Saturn’s sky. By design, the probe vanished into Saturn’s atmosphere, disintegrating moments after its final signal slipped away into the background noise of the solar system. Until the end, new measurements streamed one billion miles back to Earth, preceded by the spacecraft’s last picture show of dazzling sights from around our sun’s sixth planet. “The signal from the spacecraft is gone and, within the next 45 seconds, so will be the spacecraft,” Earl Maize, the program manager, announced in the control room at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory here, just after 4:55 a.m. local time. His eyes teared and his voice wavered as he said, “I am going to call this the end of mission.” During a news conference later, he said, “To the very end, the spacecraft did everything we asked.”
The Higgs Boson The Higgs Boson has been discovered in July 2012. The principle of the Higgs Mechanism is right but it does not explain mass and gravitation. The Higgs Field To date, several moot points concerning the Higgs Field exist : The first point is not important but nevertheless must be highlighted. Physicists consider that the Higgs boson is the materialization of the Higgs Field, just like the photon materializes the EM field. This view is probably right but we do not have the proof of this extrapolation. In physics, the electric field is associated with the electric potential, the gravity field with the gravity potential, and so on. In the Higgs Boson Theory, the Higgs Field does not have its counterpart, the "Higgs Potential". This inconsistency must be explained. Physicists suppose that the Higgs Field permeates all space. This is pure speculation because the Higgs Boson has always been detected near particles. This means that we do not know if the Higgs Field permeates all space, or if it is locally created by these particles. The assumption that the Higgs Field could be produced by the particles involved in the interaction is an interesting suggestion because it solves the Higgs Potential inconsistency. Physicists think that mass and gravitation are parts of an unique theory. The Higgs Boson explains mass but does not cover gravitation. The left side of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE) is in 4D (x,y,z,t) whereas the right side in 5D (x,y,z,t,m) since "m" is included in the Energy-Momentum tensor. The 4D expression M = f(x,y,z,t) is missing in the Higgs Theory to solve this inconsistency of the EFE. ...other debatable points also exist...
Restoration projects to remove invasive plants can make a positive impact on native plant species. But a new study featured in the journal Invasive Plant Science and Management shows restoration has an additional benefit. Removal of invasive species growing alongside a stream or river can also improve the biodiversity of aquatic organisms.
The Zika virus outbreak and its probable association with microcephaly in newborns are prompting calls to loosen Latin America's strict abortion laws and make birth control more readily available. Abortion is fully criminalized in six countries in the region. In El Salvador, for instance, women who have abortions can face prison. In many other countries, including Brazil and Colombia, abortion is permitted only in cases of rape, incest or fetal impairment. As Zika raises anxieties about babies born with significant medical problems, some physicians and reproductive health advocates think the virus should create another legal exception for abortion. Even though abortion is outlawed in much of Latin America, women still seek it out at legal and physical risk. In fact, 13 percent of maternal deaths (the fourth highest cause) in the region can be attributed to unsafe abortions. Concern about Zika could lead to real change for reproductive health for millions of women in the region. But this can happen only if the expansion of abortion and contraception is based on human rights and reproductive health equity, not driven primarily by fears of defective babies. Abortion is restricted in most of Latin America Abortion is fully criminalized, with no exceptions, in El Salvador, Chile, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Nicaragua and Suriname. In El Salvador, 30 to 40 women are serving prison sentences for seeking abortions. In many other countries, including Argentina, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia, abortion is permitted under certain circumstances. In Brazil, for instance, abortion has been allowed since 1940 in instances of rape or endangerment to the woman. Women who seek abortions outside these exceptions and the physicians who perform the procedure can be imprisoned.