Capítulo V De los derechos sociales y de las familias
En el campo laboral se reconocen los derechos individuales al trabajo, a la estabilidad y a las vacaciones, así como los derechos colectivos de sindicalización, contratación colectiva y derecho a la huelga por parte de los trabajadores y de las trabajadoras.
Artículo 97. Todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras del sector público y del sector privado tienen derecho a la huelga, dentro de las condiciones que establezca la ley.
T: Politics ID: 407 I: 1432 P: 8.09 C: 0.0014
What Makes a Good Politician?
What makes a good candidate for electoral office? There is surprisingly little consensus in
answering this question. For parties, it may be subjective criteria such as eloquence,
intelligence, charisma, or networks (Hazan and Rahat 2010; Murray 2010). It may also be
more democratically dubious criteria such as party loyalty, independent financial resources,
or family ties. Political theorists debate the relative merits of descriptive, substantive,
symbolic, surrogate, gyroscopic, or promissory representatives (Dovi 2002; Mansbridge
2003; Pitkin 1967; Przeworski et al 1999; Rehfeld 2009), while for many empiricists, the
measures of candidate strength are levels of education and/or income (Baltrunaite et al 2012;
Besley et al 2012; Franceschet and Piscopo 2012; Galasso and Nannicini 2011; Júlio and
Tavares 2010; Verge 2011). For the public, in contrast, many of these criteria are not
important: they simply want someone who can recognise, understand and defend their views
With so many different interpretations of candidate quality, and with very few codified
criteria for candidate selection (Hazan and Rahat 2010), it is difficult to prove conclusively
whether party candidate selection procedures discriminate against women, either negatively
or positively (for example, through the use of quotas). There is evidence, however, that the
criteria currently used by parties are based on male norms that may disadvantage women
(Bacchi 1996; Norris and Lovenduski 1995). Attributes more commonly held by women may
be overlooked or undervalued (Franceschet et al 2012). Party selectors may not be aware of
these biases and believe they are selecting the best available candidates, even when the
outcome is the over-recruitment of men.
Given that current candidate selection criteria are ill-defined, poorly specified, difficult to
measure and discriminatory, this paper considers how to identify new criteria that are more
objective, measurable, unbiased, and better suited to the re
T: Politics ID: 387 I: 1460 P: 8.11 C: 0.0014
Artículo 233 constitucional.
Del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional
Sección primera: del Presidente o Presidenta de la República
Artículo 233. Serán faltas absolutas del Presidente o Presidenta de la República: su muerte, su renuncia, o su destitución decretada por sentencia del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia; su incapacidad física o mental permanente certificada por una junta médica designada por el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia y con aprobación de la Asamblea Nacional; el abandono del cargo, declarado como tal por la Asamblea Nacional, así como la revocación popular de su mandato.
Cuando se produzca la falta absoluta del Presidente electo o Presidenta electa antes de tomar posesión, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Presidente o Presidenta de la Asamblea Nacional.
Si la falta absoluta del Presidente o la Presidenta de la República se produce durante los primeros cuatro años del período constitucional, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva.
En los casos anteriores, el nuevo Presidente o Presidenta completará el período constitucional correspondiente.
Si la falta absoluta se produce durante los últimos dos años del período constitucional, el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva asumirá la Presidencia de la República hasta completar dicho período.
T: Politics ID: 392 I: 1445 P: 8.12 C: 0.0014
Russian President Putin: Bloomberg Interview
OEF Rapid Review Articles
Russian President Vladimir Putin was interviewed by Bloomberg News Editor-in-Chief John Micklethwait in Vladivostok on the eve of the second Eastern Economic Forum. The interview covered whether he would run in the next 2018 elections, his opinions on the US General Election, Syria, OPEC, the Rosneft sale, and Japan. With regard to the subject of oil – which occurs around half way through the full Bloomberg transcript of the interview – Putin said that Russian oil and gas companies, but mainly the oil companies, have invested 1.5 trillion rubles, and with the state’s investment in the pipeline network and electricity sector included the overall investment in energy added up to 3.5 trillion rubles in the past year. A quite significant figure considered Putin. He noted that Russia is the world’s leader in terms of natural gas exports with a global share of about 20 percent. Micklethwait asked him if Russia would be happy in a world where the Russian state had less than 50 percent ownership of certain big companies. Putin answered that Russia did not see anything horrible in this saying that when foreign shareholders – investors – took 50 percent of a certain company the contributions to the federal budget, tax payments, increased several times immediately and the company’s efficiency didn’t deteriorate at all. So from the viewpoint of the state’s interests, Putin considered that Russia had had a more positive than negative experience with regard to this. Putin added that the year before last oil and gas revenue accounted for 53 percent of budget revenue but this year it will be about 36 percent. Structural changes are also taking place, he said, not only in terms of price, but also about distribution, economic growth, and about the expansion of certain industries. He gave the example that whereas industrial production growth across the country is at 0.3 percent, in the Far East where the Economic Forum is being held, industrial production growth is 5.4 percent.
T: Politics ID: 469 I: 1334 P: 8.50 C: 0.0015
U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara
Who is Preet Bharara?
Bharara was born in Ferozepur, India, and immigrated to the United States with his family when he was a young child. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College in 1990 and his J.D. from Columbia Law School three years later. While attending the Law School, Bharara served as a member of the Columbia Law Review.
Bharara worked as a litigation associate in New York City until 2000, when he was chosen by then U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Mary Jo White ’74 to serve as an assistant U.S. Attorney in her office. For the next five years, he focused mainly on the prosecution of organized crime and narcotics cases.
In 2005, Bharara moved to Washington, D.C., to serve as Senator Charles E. Schumer’s chief counsel on the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee. He also worked as staff director for the Senate Subcommittee on Administrative Oversight and the Courts, and helped lead the Senate’s investigation into the firing of several U.S. Attorneys during President George W. Bush’s second term. President Barack Obama nominated Bharara to the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York post in May 2009. The Senate unanimously confirmed his nomination, and he was sworn into office that August.
As the Southern District’s chief prosecutor, Bharara oversees more than 220 assistant U.S. Attorneys dealing with a wide range of cases, including those involving terrorism, narcotics, public corruption, organized crime, and white-collar crime. During the past four years, he has received praise for his handling of some of the most high-profile cases in U.S. history, such as the successful prosecutions of arms trafficker Viktor Bout, terrorist Faisal Shahzad, and hedge-fund manager Raj Rajaratnam. In February 2012, Time magazine featured Bharara on its cover, referring to him as the man who is “busting Wall St.” In 2011, he was awarded Columbia Law School’s Lawrence A. Wien Prize for Social Responsibility.
T: Politics ID: 478 I: 1376 P: 8.76 C: 0.0015
Judge Paul Crotty
Who is Paul Crotty ?
Paul Crotty is a federal judge on senior status for the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. He joined the court in 2005 after being nominated by President George W. Bush. Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015.
Born in Buffalo, New York, Crotty graduated from the University of Notre Dame with his bachelor's degree in 1962 and graduated from Cornell Law School with his LL.B. in 1967.
Crotty served in the United States Navy Reserve from 1962 to 1968.
1997-2005: Group president, Verizon Communications, New York and Connecticut region
1994-1997: Corporation counsel, New York City, New York
1988-1993: Attorney in private practice, New York
1984-1988: Office of Financial Services, New York City
1986-1988: Commissioner of Housing Preservation and Development
1984-1986: Commissioner of Finance
1969-1984: Attorney in private practice, New York
1967-1969: Law clerk, Honorable Lloyd MacMahon, Southern District of New York
Crotty was nominated to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George W. Bush on February 14, 2005, to a seat vacated by Harold Baer. Crotty was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on April 11, 2005, on a Senate vote and received commission on April 15, 2005. Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015.
T: Politics ID: 715 I: 645 P: 5.66 C: 0.0031
Dar o quitar valor a una pieza monetaria no aparece en la lista de las atribuciones del presidente.
Artículo 236. Son atribuciones y obligaciones del Presidente o Presidenta de la República:
1. Cumplir y hacer cumplir esta Constitución y la ley.
2. Dirigir la acción del Gobierno.
3. Nombrar y remover al Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva; nombrar y remover los Ministros o Ministras.
4. Dirigir las relaciones exteriores de la República y celebrar y ratificar los tratados, convenios o acuerdos internacionales.
5. Dirigir la Fuerza Armada Nacional en su carácter de Comandante en Jefe, ejercer la suprema autoridad jerárquica de ella y fijar su contingente.
6. Ejercer el mando supremo de la Fuerza Armada Nacional, promover sus oficiales a partir del grado de coronel o coronela o capitán o capitana de navío, y nombrarlos o nombrarlas para los cargos que les son privativos.
7. Declarar los estados de excepción y decretar la restricción de garantías en los casos previstos en esta Constitución.
8. Dictar, previa autorización por una ley habilitante, decretos con fuerza de ley.
9. Convocar la Asamblea Nacional a sesiones extraordinarias.
10. Reglamentar total o parcialmente las leyes, sin alterar su espíritu, propósito y razón.
11. Administrar la Hacienda Pública Nacional.
12. Negociar los empréstitos nacionales.
13. Decretar créditos adicionales al Presupuesto, previa autorización de la Asamblea Nacional o de la Comisión Delegada.
14. Celebrar los contratos de interés nacional conforme a esta Constitución y a la ley.
15. Designar, previa autorización de la Asamblea Nacional o de la Comisión Delegada, al Procurador o Procuradora General de la República y a los jefes o jefas de las misiones diplomáticas permanentes.
16. Nombrar y remover a aquellos funcionarios o aquellas funcionarias cuya designación le atribuyen esta Constitución y la ley.
17. Dirigir a la Asamblea Nacional, personalmente o por intermedio del Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva, informes o mensajes especiales.
18. Formular el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y dirigir su ejecución previa aprobación de la Asamblea Nacional.
19. Conceder indultos.
20. Fijar el número, organización y competencia de los ministerios y otros organismos de la Administración Pública Nacional, así como también la organización y funcionamiento del Consejo de Ministros, dentro de los principios y lineamientos señalados por la correspondiente ley orgánica.
21. Disolver la Asamblea Nacional en el supuesto establecido en esta Constitución.
22. Convocar referendos en los casos previstos en esta Constitución.
23. Convocar y presidir el Consejo de Defensa de la Nación.
24. Las demás que le señalen esta Constitución y la ley.
El Presidente o Presidenta de la República ejercerá en Consejo de Ministros las atribuciones señaladas en los numerales 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22 y las que le atribuya la ley para ser ejercidas en igual forma.
Los actos del Presidente o Presidenta de la República, con excepción de los señalados en los ordinales 3 y 5, serán refrendados para su validez por el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva y el Ministro o Ministra o Ministros o Ministras respectivos.
T: Politics ID: 783 I: 53 P: 6.63 C: 0.0370
Is a Russia-Saudi deal on the horizon?
Russian president Vladimir Putin met with Saudi Defense Minister in Sochi on October 11th, while Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov was holding a meeting with his Saudi counterpart. The parties discussed Syria and agreed upon the necessity to prevent the creation of a terrorist caliphate. The levers of a hypothetical Russian-Saudi deal would be: a rise in oil prices, possibly accompanied by Saudi arms purchases, and on the Russian side, the guarantee that Assad will leave after a transition period, along with some kind of a Saudi “right of scrutiny” on Russian arms sales to Iran.
T: Politics ID: 784 I: 53 P: 6.63 C: 0.0370
Japan PM Abe Courts Saudi King In Historic Meeting
Saudi Arabian King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz al-Saud and Japan PM Shinzo Abe met in Tokyo and agreed to launch a feasibility study on setting up special deregulated economic zones to attract Japanese firms to the Middle Eastern country. A joint statement entitled Saudi Japan Vision 2030 identified nine main areas of cooperation, including energy, competitive industry, investment and finance, health care and medicine, and high-quality social infrastructure. This was the first visit to Japan by a Saudi Arabian king in 46 years, and considered “historic.” Saudi Arabia is Japan’s largest oil supplier.
T: Politics ID: 755 I: 461 P: 6.68 C: 0.0043
New plans for United States come with Steven Mnuchin. Source:@gop
FEB-2017.- What wil new Treasury Secretary focus on?
As Treasury Secretary and Principal Economic Advisor Mr. Mnuchin will spearhead President-elect Trump’s plan to develop a dynamic, booming economy that will create millions of new jobs over the next decade. Top priorities will include:
Pushing a pro-growth tax plan where every income group will receive a tax cut and low-income Americans will pay no taxes at all.
Working with President-elect Trump to craft a modern regulatory framework that slashes the out-of-control bureaucracy that costs our economy trillions each year.
Working with President-elect Trump and economic leaders to implement an America First trade policy that ensures that every single one of our trade agreements increases our GDP growth rate, reduces our trade deficit, and strengthens our manufacturing base.
Enacting a common sense economic plan, we will unleash American energy, creating millions of new jobs and slashing costs for consumers.
Proposing the "Penny Plan," which will reduce spending by almost $1 trillion over ten years by simply reducing non-defense, non-safety net spending by one percent each year.
T: Politics ID: 650 I: 911 P: 6.90 C: 0.0022
Who is Ban Ki-moon
The Secretary-General was born in the Republic of Korea on 13 June 1944. He received a bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970. In 1985, he earned a master's degree in public administration from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
At the time of his election as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban was his country's Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade. His 37 years of service with the Ministry included postings in New Delhi, Washington D.C. and Vienna, and responsibility for a variety of portfolios, including Foreign Policy Adviser to the President, Chief National Security Adviser to the President, Deputy Minister for Policy Planning and Director-General of American Affairs.
Mr. Ban’s ties to the United Nations date back to 1975, when he worked for the Foreign Ministry's United Nations Division. That work expanded over the years, with assignments that included service as Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization and Chef de Cabinet during the Republic of Korea's 2001-2002 presidency of the UN General Assembly. Mr. Ban has also been actively involved in issues relating to inter-Korean relations.
The Secretary-General speaks English, French and Korean. He and his wife, Madam Yoo (Ban) Soon-taek, whom he met in high school in 1962, have one son, two daughters and three grandchildren. Since 2007, Mrs. Ban has devoted her attention to women’s and children’s health, including autism, the elimination of violence against women, and the campaign to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.
Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations. His priorities have been to mobilize world leaders around a set of new global challenges, from climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increasing pressures involving food, energy and water. He has sought to be a bridge-builder, to give voice to the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people, and to strengthen the Organization itself.
"I grew up in war", the Secretary-General has said, "and saw the United Nations help my country to recover and rebuild. That experience was a big part of what led me to pursue a career in public service. As Secretary-General, I am determined to see this Organization deliver tangible, meaningful results that advance peace, development and human rights."
T: Politics ID: 653 I: 942 P: 7.14 C: 0.0021
who is Stephen R. Miller?
Professor Stephen R. Miller
is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of Idaho College of Law. He is an expert in land use; local government; local environmental law; sustainability and resilience planning, with an emphasis on wildfire; and local regulation of the sharing economy. His numerous books, chapters, law review articles and editorials have been published by Cambridge University Press, the Harvard Environmental Law Review and the Harvard Journal on Legislation, among others.
He has served as a consultant on United States’ land use governance for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and as an adviser to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) on the creation of a National Risk Index. He has served as a commissioner on the Boise Planning & Zoning Commission, and presently serves on the boards of the Montana & Idaho Community Development Corporation, the Rocky Mountain Land Use Institute, and the Land Use Law Center at Pace Law School.