T: Politics ID: 386 I: 1258 P: 8.01 C: 0.0016

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Artículo 333 constitucional.


Título VIII
De la Protección de esta Constitución
Capítulo I
De la Garantía de esta Constitución

Artículo 333. °
Esta Constitución no perderá su vigencia si dejare de observarse por acto de
fuerza o porque fuere derogada por cualquier otro medio distinto al previsto en
En tal eventualidad, todo ciudadano investido o ciudadana investida o no de
autoridad, tendrá el deber de colaborar en el restablecimiento de su efectiva


T: Politics ID: 399 I: 1231 P: 8.10 C: 0.0016

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Successful woman

Who is Najat Vallaud-Belkacem?

 Successful womanOnce A Shepherd Girl In Morocco, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem Is Now France's Education Minister!

Everybody dreams of making it big in life but very few determined souls really act upon it. The story of Najat Vallaud-Belkacem is a testament to this, who overcame all the obstacles life laid at her feet and carved her own destiny.
Once a shepherd girl of four - who tended goats and fetched water from the well - Najat moved to France with her family and faced the real world full of opportunities as well as struggles. The Moroccan girl who had no proficiency in French learnt the language by the end of her first year in college.
Najat inherited hard work and resourcefulness from her father who laid strict rules for his daughters - no boys and no nightclubs till the age of 18. As a result, the girls completely surrendered themselves to studies.


T: Politics ID: 390 I: 1285 P: 8.40 C: 0.0016

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Derecho a huelga

Capítulo V De los derechos sociales y de las familias

 Derecho a huelgaEn el campo laboral se reconocen los derechos individuales al trabajo, a la estabilidad y a las vacaciones, así como los derechos colectivos de sindicalización, contratación colectiva y derecho a la huelga por parte de los trabajadores y de las trabajadoras.

Artículo 97. Todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras del sector público y del sector privado tienen derecho a la huelga, dentro de las condiciones que establezca la ley.


T: Politics ID: 392 I: 1335 P: 8.73 C: 0.0015

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Wladimir Putin

Russian President Putin: Bloomberg Interview

 Wladimir PutinOEF Rapid Review Articles
Russian President Vladimir Putin was interviewed by Bloomberg News Editor-in-Chief John Micklethwait in Vladivostok on the eve of the second Eastern Economic Forum. The interview covered whether he would run in the next 2018 elections, his opinions on the US General Election, Syria, OPEC, the Rosneft sale, and Japan. With regard to the subject of oil – which occurs around half way through the full Bloomberg transcript of the interview – Putin said that Russian oil and gas companies, but mainly the oil companies, have invested 1.5 trillion rubles, and with the state’s investment in the pipeline network and electricity sector included the overall investment in energy added up to 3.5 trillion rubles in the past year. A quite significant figure considered Putin. He noted that Russia is the world’s leader in terms of natural gas exports with a global share of about 20 percent. Micklethwait asked him if Russia would be happy in a world where the Russian state had less than 50 percent ownership of certain big companies. Putin answered that Russia did not see anything horrible in this saying that when foreign shareholders – investors – took 50 percent of a certain company the contributions to the federal budget, tax payments, increased several times immediately and the company’s efficiency didn’t deteriorate at all. So from the viewpoint of the state’s interests, Putin considered that Russia had had a more positive than negative experience with regard to this. Putin added that the year before last oil and gas revenue accounted for 53 percent of budget revenue but this year it will be about 36 percent. Structural changes are also taking place, he said, not only in terms of price, but also about distribution, economic growth, and about the expansion of certain industries. He gave the example that whereas industrial production growth across the country is at 0.3 percent, in the Far East where the Economic Forum is being held, industrial production growth is 5.4 percent.

SRC: Bloomberg


T: Politics ID: 407 I: 1327 P: 8.73 C: 0.0015

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What Makes a Good Politician?

What makes a good candidate for electoral office? There is surprisingly little consensus in
answering this question. For parties, it may be subjective criteria such as eloquence,
intelligence, charisma, or networks (Hazan and Rahat 2010; Murray 2010). It may also be
more democratically dubious criteria such as party loyalty, independent financial resources,
or family ties. Political theorists debate the relative merits of descriptive, substantive,
symbolic, surrogate, gyroscopic, or promissory representatives (Dovi 2002; Mansbridge
2003; Pitkin 1967; Przeworski et al 1999; Rehfeld 2009), while for many empiricists, the
measures of candidate strength are levels of education and/or income (Baltrunaite et al 2012;
Besley et al 2012; Franceschet and Piscopo 2012; Galasso and Nannicini 2011; Júlio and
Tavares 2010; Verge 2011). For the public, in contrast, many of these criteria are not
important: they simply want someone who can recognise, understand and defend their views
and interests.
With so many different interpretations of candidate quality, and with very few codified
criteria for candidate selection (Hazan and Rahat 2010), it is difficult to prove conclusively
whether party candidate selection procedures discriminate against women, either negatively
or positively (for example, through the use of quotas). There is evidence, however, that the
criteria currently used by parties are based on male norms that may disadvantage women
(Bacchi 1996; Norris and Lovenduski 1995). Attributes more commonly held by women may
be overlooked or undervalued (Franceschet et al 2012). Party selectors may not be aware of
these biases and believe they are selecting the best available candidates, even when the
outcome is the over-recruitment of men.
Given that current candidate selection criteria are ill-defined, poorly specified, difficult to
measure and discriminatory, this paper considers how to identify new criteria that are more
objective, measurable, unbiased, and better suited to the re


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Artículo 233 constitucional.

 ConstituciónCapítulo II
Del Poder Ejecutivo Nacional

Sección primera: del Presidente o Presidenta de la República

Artículo 233. Serán faltas absolutas del Presidente o Presidenta de la República: su muerte, su renuncia, o su destitución decretada por sentencia del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia; su incapacidad física o mental permanente certificada por una junta médica designada por el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia y con aprobación de la Asamblea Nacional; el abandono del cargo, declarado como tal por la Asamblea Nacional, así como la revocación popular de su mandato.

Cuando se produzca la falta absoluta del Presidente electo o Presidenta electa antes de tomar posesión, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Presidente o Presidenta de la Asamblea Nacional.

Si la falta absoluta del Presidente o la Presidenta de la República se produce durante los primeros cuatro años del período constitucional, se procederá a una nueva elección universal, directa y secreta dentro de los treinta días consecutivos siguientes. Mientras se elige y toma posesión el nuevo Presidente o la nueva Presidenta, se encargará de la Presidencia de la República el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva.

En los casos anteriores, el nuevo Presidente o Presidenta completará el período constitucional correspondiente.

Si la falta absoluta se produce durante los últimos dos años del período constitucional, el Vicepresidente Ejecutivo o la Vicepresidenta Ejecutiva asumirá la Presidencia de la República hasta completar dicho período.

T: Politics ID: 406 I: 1374 P: 9.04 C: 0.0015

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Leader Attributes

Qualities of a good political leader

 Leader AttributesCEBU, Philippines – As the filing of certificates of candidacy for next year's national and local elections nears, the question of which candidates best fit public office is at the forefront of the public mind. Voters need to go beyond surface popularity and dig deeper to know if the individual candidates really have what it takes to render good public service. It's important to get to the truth behind the campaign hype.

The website www.beliefnet.com acknowledges that, for many people, deciding which candidate to vote into office is simply a matter of party affiliation. In the Philippine experience, however, this is no longer totally true. The past several elections have resulted in quite a mixed victory from among the country's multi-party electoral system.

It may be construed, therefore, that the main Filipino electorate cast their votes based on specific characteristics they look for in the candidates they choose. But what are these desirable characteristics? What are the qualities or characteristics that good political leaders should possess?

The www.beliefnet.com website lists the top five characteristics of some of the world's most successful political leaders. These, for sure, can help voters in determining which candidates to vote into office.

Good political attributes>

  • Honesty

  • Compassion

  • Integrity

  • Confidence

  • Flexibility


T: Politics ID: 397 I: 1410 P: 9.28 C: 0.0014

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Marco Rubio

Who is Marco Rubio?

 Marco RubioSynopsis for Marco Rubio

Born in Miami, Florida in 1971, Marco Rubio is the son of Cuban immigrants. After earning a bachelor's degree from the University of Florida in 1993, he went to the University of Miami for his law degree. Rubio's political career began with his election to the West Miami City Commission in 1998. He was elected in the Florida House of Representatives the following year. In 2009, Rubio won his campaign for the U.S. Senate. In 2015, Rubio announced his plans to run for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination. However, his campaign never picked up the momentum he'd hoped for and he dropped out of the race after a disappointing defeat in his home state of Florida. He later announced he'd re-enter race for his previous Senate seat.


T: Politics ID: 469 I: 1227 P: 9.30 C: 0.0016

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U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara

Who is Preet Bharara?

  U.S. Attorney Preet BhararaBharara was born in Ferozepur, India, and immigrated to the United States with his family when he was a young child. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College in 1990 and his J.D. from Columbia Law School three years later. While attending the Law School, Bharara served as a member of the Columbia Law Review.

Bharara worked as a litigation associate in New York City until 2000, when he was chosen by then U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Mary Jo White ’74 to serve as an assistant U.S. Attorney in her office. For the next five years, he focused mainly on the prosecution of organized crime and narcotics cases.

In 2005, Bharara moved to Washington, D.C., to serve as Senator Charles E. Schumer’s chief counsel on the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee. He also worked as staff director for the Senate Subcommittee on Administrative Oversight and the Courts, and helped lead the Senate’s investigation into the firing of several U.S. Attorneys during President George W. Bush’s second term. President Barack Obama nominated Bharara to the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York post in May 2009. The Senate unanimously confirmed his nomination, and he was sworn into office that August.

As the Southern District’s chief prosecutor, Bharara oversees more than 220 assistant U.S. Attorneys dealing with a wide range of cases, including those involving terrorism, narcotics, public corruption, organized crime, and white-collar crime. During the past four years, he has received praise for his handling of some of the most high-profile cases in U.S. history, such as the successful prosecutions of arms trafficker Viktor Bout, terrorist Faisal Shahzad, and hedge-fund manager Raj Rajaratnam. In February 2012, Time magazine featured Bharara on its cover, referring to him as the man who is “busting Wall St.” In 2011, he was awarded Columbia Law School’s Lawrence A. Wien Prize for Social Responsibility.


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Funcionamiento del artículo 233 de la constitución venezolana.


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Judge Paul Crotty

Who is Paul Crotty ?

 Judge Paul CrottyPaul Crotty is a federal judge on senior status for the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. He joined the court in 2005 after being nominated by President George W. Bush. Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015.


Born in Buffalo, New York, Crotty graduated from the University of Notre Dame with his bachelor's degree in 1962 and graduated from Cornell Law School with his LL.B. in 1967.[1]

Military service
Crotty served in the United States Navy Reserve from 1962 to 1968.[1]

Professional career

1997-2005: Group president, Verizon Communications, New York and Connecticut region
1994-1997: Corporation counsel, New York City, New York
1988-1993: Attorney in private practice, New York
1984-1988: Office of Financial Services, New York City
1986-1988: Commissioner of Housing Preservation and Development
1984-1986: Commissioner of Finance
1984: Commissioner
1969-1984: Attorney in private practice, New York
1967-1969: Law clerk, Honorable Lloyd MacMahon, Southern District of New York[1]
Judicial career

Crotty was nominated to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George W. Bush on February 14, 2005, to a seat vacated by Harold Baer. Crotty was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on April 11, 2005, on a Senate vote and received commission on April 15, 2005.[3] Crotty assumed senior status on August 1, 2015.


T: Politics ID: 559 I: 1191 P: 9.76 C: 0.0017

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Finland Education

Who is the prime minister of the best education performance country? @juhasipila

 Finland Education

Juha Sipilä

Personal details

Prime Minister, 29 May 2015 to present
Party Leader, Master of Science (Technology), Member of Parliament
Centre Party of Finland
Date and place of birth: 25 April 1961 Veteli
Place of residence: Kempele

Political career

Prime Minister, 29 May 2015 to present

Centre Party, Party Leader, 2012 to present

Member of Parliament, 2011 to present
Parliament work

Kempele Local Council, Member 2013 to present

Other work experience and societal responsibilities

Fortel Invest Oy, Managing Director 1998–2002, 2005–2011
Elektrobit Corporation, Managing Director 2002–2005
Solitra Oy, Production Manager and Managing Director 1988–1998
LK Products, Product Development Manager 1985–1988

Positions as Member of the Board of Directors in several companies



Teléfonos: +58 212 578 1145
Fax: +58 212 576 3892